: : , , 㳿

: : , , 㳿

-

: , , 㳿

-1

̲

, , . , , : , , , , , , , .

в. .

, . , - :

CN2NH2-COOH , , , .

CH3-CHNH2-COOH a- , 2- , .

CH3-CH2-CH-CHNH2-COOH 2--3-

/ .

CH3

CH3-CHOH-CHNH2-COOH a--b-, 2--3- , .

. . . .

H2N-COOH. .

H2N-CH2-COOH. -: CH3-CHNH2-COOH a- , (a-), CH2NH2-CH2-COOH b- (b-)

³ - , - :

CH3-CH2-CHNH2-COOH a-

CH3-CHNH2-CH2-COOH b-

CH2NH2-CH2-CH2-COOH g-

³ :

a-

b- H2N-CH2-CH-COOH

/

CH 3

 

̲.

a-. :

1.ij :

NH2-H+CL-CH2-COONH4------HCL---NH2-CH2COOHNH4

2. ij ( ). ֳ , a- a-:

CH3-C=O ----+HN3-----H2O--CH3-CH=NH--+HCN-CH3-CH-CºN--+HOH: [H2]---NH3

/ /

H NH2

CH3-CH-COOH

/

NH 2

3.a- :

NO-CH(COOR)2

CH2(COOR)2R*ONO---R*OH¯ --+H2-[Ni]NH2-CH(COOR)2C6H5OCL--HCL

HON=C(COOR)2

ÞC6H5CO-NH-CH(COOHR)2--+RONa---ROH-[C6H5CO-NH-C(COOR)2]Na+--R*I---NaI--C6H5CONH-CR*(COOR)2H+, HOHC6H5COOH-NH-CR*(COOH)2 ----CO2-NH2-CHR*-COOH

4. 25 . . . , - . . .

b-. :

1. . . a,b- , :

CH2=CH-COOH --+2NH3NH2-CH2-CH2-COONH4

2. .. : CH2-CHO+CH2(COOH)2--+NH3CH3-CH-NH2-CH2COOH+H2O+CO2

b- . , , .

. 䳺 , :

H2C CH2 H2C CH2


H2C C=O H2N-OH--HOH H2C C=N-OH--[H2SO4]


H2C CH2 H2C CH2

H2C CH2 OH H2C CH2

CO

H2C =N H2C NH


H2C CH2 H2C CH2

w- e- , - 2,6- ().

Գ .

- , . . . .

, , , . ( ):+NH3-CH2-CO-O- , ; - : +NH3-CH2-COOH+HOH- +NH3-CH2-COOHO-H+NH2-CH2-COO-

, , . pH .

. L-.

ղ̲Ͳ Ҳ.

. .

1. . a- . : CH2-NH2 O CO

Cu

CO O NH2-CH2

2. , , . .

3. (H3N+-CH2-COOH)-CL. .

4. 䳿 :

H2N-CH2COOHHNO2 N2+H2O+HOCH2-COOH

:

CH2-CH2-COOC2H5HNO2---2H2ON2CH-COOC2H5

ij () :

NºN+--CH-COOC2H5-N=N+=CH-COOC2H5

³ .

5. 䳿 :

CH2NH2 CH2-NH-COCH3

/ +(CH3CO)O2 / +CH3COOH

COOH COOH

6. , . .

7. :

1) a- :

CH3-CH-CO---OH CH3-HC-CO

|

H-NH+NHH NH NH+2H2O

|

OCO-CH-CH3 OC-CH-CH3

2) b- . :

CH2-CH-COOH

| CH2=CH-COOONH4

NH2 H

3)g-,d- -:

H2C CH2 H2C CH2


H2C CO -H2O H2C CO


HN---H OH NH

: .

8. a-, - , . d- l- d- l- :

d- ---NH3d-

NOBr ¯ NOBr

l- NH3- l-

.

9. 쳿 㳿 ( ).

. a-, , . :

CH2-COOH CH2-COOH

H-N HOCO-CH2-N

CH2-COOH CH2-COON


.L-

(CH3)2CH-CH2-CH-COOH

|

NH2

Leu

(CH3)2CH-CH-COOH

|

NH2

Val

CH3-CH-COOH

|

NH2

Ala

H2N-CH2-COOH

Gly

CH3-CH2-CH-CH-COOH

| |

CH3 NH2

Ile

-CH2-CH-COOH

|

NH2

Phe

H2N-CO-CH2-CH-COOH

|

NH2

Asn

H2NCOCH2CH2CH-COOH

|

NH2

Gin

CH2-CH-COOH

|

NH NH2

Trp

-COOH

NH

Pro

HO-CH2-CH-COOH

|

NH2

Ser

CH3-CH-CH-COOH

| |

OH NH2

Thr

HO- -CH2-CH-COOH

|

NH2

Tyr

HO

-COOH

NH

Opr

NH2

|

NS-CH2-CH-COOH

Cys

NH2

|

S-CH2-CH-COOH

|

S-CH2-CH-COOH

|

NH2

Cys-Cys

CH3-S-CH2-CH-COOH

| NH2

HOOC-CH2-CH-COOH

|

NH2

Met

HOOC-CH2-CH2-CH-COOH

|

NH2

Glu

H2N-CH2CH2CH2CH2CH-COOH

|

NH2

Lys

H2N-C-NH-CH2CH2CH2-CH-COOH

|| |

NH NH2

Arg

N

-CH2-CH-COOH

NH |

NH2

His

.

. 䳿 . .

. pH . . ; pH .

. , (-SH) , , . . .

. , -OH -NH , , =. , ࠠ ( ).

- . ³ : , , ( ).

, . , -. 2-. , -:

+ +2-;

+NH3+Ԯ+H3PO4 .

2- , , , . , 3- -5*-.

: . 3- , -, -5*- . : ; ; ; ; .

. , , . - - , , , . , , . . -4*- , () () . ó , 5--1- . , , , ; .

˲:

1. .., ... ,

2. .., .. , .. . ճ.

3. ., ., .. . : . 1996 .



2010