Топик: Decline of ukrainian statehood and culture (1712-1783)
Топик: Decline of ukrainian statehood and culture (1712-1783)
Lipich Vitalii Form 11-V School
defeat of Mazepa, tsar Peter intensified his efforts to subjugate Ukraine.
Hetman Skoropadskyi had his powers restricted by Russian supervisors. His
residence was transferred from Baturyn to Hlukhow near Russian border, where
two Russian garrisons were stationed to ensure his loyalty to Moscow.
population became burdened by plundering Russian military units, dispersed
throughout the country. Cossacks were sent to work on construction of canals
near St Petersburg, connecting river Volga with Baltic Sea, where they died in
thousands from hunger, exhaustion and sickness. Many Cossack colonels were
replaced by Russian nationals.
1722, tsar appointed a council called "Little Russian Collegiate",
controlled by senior Russian officers and headed by brigadier Velmyaninow, to
monitor and audit hetman's activities and decisions. This, for practical
purposes, transferred all powers to Russians, leaving Cossack hetman and his
officers only with empty titles.
Skoropadskyi was very upset by such situation; he became ill and died in 1722.
tsar Peter used this opportunity to abolish the office of hetman altogether. He
directed Cossack colonel Polubotok to perform hetman's duties under supervision
of Velmyaninow and refused to agree to Cossack requests to elect new hetman.
occupiers continued to persecute and impoverish Ukrainian population. They kept
sending more Cossacks to work on construction of canals, connecting Caspian Sea
with Baltic Sea, where some 20000 Cossacks perished during years 1721 to 1725.
was an honest and energetic man. He managed to improve law and order within
Cossack establishment and to improve living conditions of the population.
However this did not please Russian authorities, who relied on disorder and
corruption to maintain their grip on Ukraine. They feared Polubotok's growing
popularity and his efforts to re establish Hetmanate.
complained to tsar that Polubotok was not complying with his directives.
Consequently Polubotok was arrested and interrogated under torture in
Petropavlowsk fort, near St Petersburg. He died there, as a martyr for
Ukrainian cause in autumn 1724, in spite of tsar's belated efforts to save him
and to reconcile with Cossacks. tsar Peter died soon after, at the beginning of
was thus left at the mercy of Velmyaninow and his henchmen. As for Cossack
colonels, some were in prison near St Petersburg and others, who were not
already replaced by Russians, kept quiet and to scared to resist.
Peter was succeeded by his wife Catherine. Faced with possible war with Turkey,
she needed Cossacks and wanted to return to them some of their former freedoms.
However she faced a stiff opposition from the "old guard" in Russian
government, therefore Cossacks received only few minor concessions. Catherine
died in spring 1727 and the grandson of tsar Peter, Peter II became the emperor
Russian government sacked Velmyaninow and his "Little Russian
Collegiate", released Cossack colonels from jail and appointed 70 year old
Danylo Apostol as Cossack hetman. On 1st October 1727 Apostol was formally
accepted by Cossacks by ceremonious election in Hlukhow.
reporting to Russian "resident" Naumow, new hetman managed to carry
out considerable improvements in Ukrainian situation. His loyalty to Moscow was
ensured by presence of one of his sons as virtual hostage in St Petersburg.
Peter II died in 1730 and his aunt tsarina Anna became the ruler of Russia.
When hetman Apostol fell ill and became paralyzed, she refused to hand over his
powers to Cossacks and ordered Russian "resident", prince Shakhowski
to form a council, consisting mainly of Russians, to take over. Hetman Apostol
died in January 1734 and later in that year Zaporozhtsi in Sitch decided to
come over from Turkish to Russian side.
Ukraine becoming almost a province of Russia, russianization of political,
religious and cultural life intensified. Intermarriages with Russians were
encouraged and any efforts to regain independence were brutally suppressed.
Cossack colonels were kept under constant observation and subjected to house
Searches at the slightest sign of disloyalty. Even any attempts to obtain
justice were punished; when, in 1737, Kyiv's city counselors tried to defend
their rights against Russian excesses, they were all jailed. Things were so
bad, that when in 1740 an English general Keith was temporarily appointed in
place of a Russian administrator, people were amazed by his human behavior and
hard for the top layer of Ukrainian society, but even harder for middle and
lower classes and peasants, who suffered most from Russian exploitation.
Cossacks were being forced to fight for Russia against Turks, Tatars and Poles
for small rewards, and often for nothing.
such circumstances, yearning for the return of Hetmanate autonomy persisted.
The possibility of this to happen occurred after the end of war with Turkey in
1740 and death of tsarina Anna in 1741. A short regency of Anna II was terminated
by a palace revolution, whereupon the daughter of Peter I, Elizabeth was
installed on Russian throne.
was sympathetic to Ukrainian cause because, prior to becoming tsarina, she
befriended and fell in love with a handsome son of a Cossack court choir
singer, Oleksiy Rozumowskyi. She married him after her coronation.
visiting Kyiv in 1744, she agreed to promote Cossacks' request to re install
hetman's office and proposed Oleksiy's younger brother Kyrylo Rozumowskyi for
year old Kyrylo, who studied abroad, returned in 1746, married into royal
family and was bestowed with many orders and titles. In 1747 Russian senate was
requested to take steps toward re establishment of Hetmanate.
February 1750, ceremonious formality of election of new Cossack hetman took
place in Hlukhow, followed by celebrations and festivities. In spring of 1751
hetman Kyrylo Rozumowskyi, again with great ceremony and parade was installed
being brought up in St Petersburg, Rozumowskyi was a stranger to Ukraine and
ways of life there. His Russian advisor Teplow was unsympathetic to Ukraine's
newly won autonomy and did all he could to hinder its development. Rozumowskyi
himself was bored with life in Ukraine and preferred to spend most of his time
in St Petersburg.
could be said that, during this period, Ukraine was divided into several parts
such as Left Bank consisting of Hetmanate and Slobidshchyna, Zaporozhian Sich,
Right Bank, Halychyna (Galicia), Wolhynia, Bukovyna and Transcarpatia.
Hetmanate included areas around Poltava, Lubny, Peryaslav, Kyiv, Nizhyn,
Chernihiv, Hlukhiv and also areas, which are at present parts of Russian
Federation, around Starodub, Pochep and Mhlyn.
neighboring areas centered around Kharkiv were called Slobidshchyna meaning
free (from serfdom) lands also referred to as Sloboda Ukraine. They included
Izyum, Balakleya, Akhtyrka, Sumy and, presently Russian areas around Bilhorod,
Ostrohozhsk and Sudza. Originally these lands were settled by adventurous
people, who tried to establish themselves free from Polish and Russian
domination. They formed Cossack regiments for protection from Tatars and for
some time were able to lead an independent life, because they served as a
buffer from Turks and Tatars. However later they fell under direct Russian
rule; the autonomy of Loboda Ukraine was abolished under Catherine II in 1765.
ensure lasting domination over these two parts of Ukraine, Russians tried to
suppress Ukrainian culture. They disallowed Ukrainian language in books,
schools and theaters. The church and government were controlled by Moscow and
the only way for a person to advance was to speak Russian and to be loyal to
Ukraine on the east side of Dnipro (Left Bank) was being russianized, the
western Ukraine consisting of Galicia Wolhynia and Bukovyna (areas around Lviv,
Ternopil Lutsk and Chernivtsi) was under Polish influence. Polish authorities
were preventing not only national, but also economic development of Ukrainians.
The Orthodox Church was being gradually taken over by Polish dominated Catholic
western Ukraine and, Russian dominated, parts on east side of Dnipro was a
large territory on Right Bank, partly de-populated by recent wars involving
Cossacks, Poles, Russians, Turks and Tatars. Gradually, Polish nobility began
to return, reclaimed their landholdings and started to exploit Ukrainian
peasants as serfs. The resistance to this, at first, was in the form of outlaw
gangs, said to have robbed the rich to help the poor. Some of the gang leaders
were even considered as folk heroes, such as Olexa Dowbush, who operated
between 1738 and 1745. There were also uprisings by so called Haydamaks, generally
during hostilities between Poland and Russia. The biggest uprising was in 1768.
Haydamaks, led by Maxym Zaliznyak and Ivan Honta, captured Umanj and killed
many Polish oppressors and their Jewish collaborators. They expected help from
their Orthodox "brothers" from Russia. However Russians made peace
with Poland, captured Zaliznyak, Honta and many other Haydamaks handed them
over to Poles. Those, who were not immediately tortured and executed, were
tried in Kodno and sentenced, in most cases, to death.
Transcarpathian Ukraine (areas around Uzhhorod and Mukachiv) was under
Hungarian rule. Overwhelmingly rural in character Transcarpathia had a
Ukrainian Ruthenian peasantry, a powerful Hungarian nobility and a substantial
number of urban and rural Jews. Ukrainian population there did not display much
enthusiasm for independence but managed to retain their language, customs and
of Hetmanate was decided by tsarina Catering II, who ruled Russia from 1762,
after short reign of her husband Peter III. Hetman Rozumovskyi resigned and, in
his place, on November 1764, tsarina re installed "Little Russian
Collegiate", under presidency of Graf Rumyantsev.
policy was to eliminate all remaining traces of Ukrainian autonomy and
separatism, to introduce serfdom of peasants and to integrate Ukraine with
Russia. This was resisted by Cossacks and population at large.
tsarina ordered election of deputies from all parts of Russian Empire in order
to be informed what kind of government people want. The deputies from Ukraine
declared their desire for Hetmanate autonomy. This angered Rumyantsev and he
sent out his officers to persuade electors to elect deputies supporting his
government; people who resisted were jailed. However in spite of all efforts of
Russian authorities, the popular sentiment for return of Hetmanate system
Galicia and, two years later, Bukovina were annexed to Austro Hungarian
Monarchy, which has somewhat improved conditions of Ukrainians (Ruthenians in
the contemporary terminology of Galicia). In 1774 the Uniate church (renamed to
Greek Catholic church) was, by imperial decree, equalized in status with Roman
Catholic church. Educational reforms in 1775 allowed for instructions in
Ukrainian language. However on balance government policies favored the Poles.
Cossack stronghold, Zaporozhian Sitch, was subservient to Moscow and was
utilized for raids on Crimea and Turkey. During Turkish war, which started in
1768, several thousand Cossacks supported Russians in battles on land and Sea.
Their efforts were rewarded by eulogies from tsarina but little else and
restrictions of Cossack freedoms continued. Their lands were being colonized by
Russians, Serbians and other foreigners with aim of creation of so called
Novorossiya or New Russia state in the south of Ukraine.
end of Turkish war in 1775 the Cossacks were being gradually disarmed and in
the Summer of that year, Russian general Tekeli surrounded Cossacks in Sitch
itself with superior force and demanded abandonment of their fortress. Faced
with such overwhelming odds, Cossack chief Kalnyshevskyj surrendered. Sitch was
destroyed and abolished by tzarist edict of 3rd August 1775. Kalnyshevskyj and
other Cossack leaders were exiled to Siberia.
Cossack lands were granted to Russian nobles; Cossacks were told to disperse
and settle in towns and villages or to join Russian forces. Many Cossacks
escaped and settled in Turkey near Danube delta; in 1778 they were formally
accepted under Turkish rule.
of 1780 all districts, which were formerly under Hetmanate, were incorporated
into Russian regime. In 1783 all Cossack regiments were transferred to Russian
forces; peasants were prohibited to leave their landlords, which made them
serfs on their former land. Ukrainian church autonomy was abolished and church
property was transferred to Russian treasury.